10 Stages of Genocide – summary version


(Summarised from

  1. Classification –people are distinguished by certain categories (ethnicity, religion, race, etc.)
  2. Symbolization –symbols are applied to the different groups (by means of names, colors, dress, emblems, etc.)
  3. Discrimination – a dominant group denies the rights of another group.
  4. Dehumanization – one group denies the humanity of another group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases.
  5. Organization – arms are purchased by states and militias to facilitate acts of genocide. Special training is given to militias and special army killing units.
  6. Polarization – extremists drive the groups apart and hate groups spread polarizing propaganda through mass media.
  7. Preparation – plans are made for genocidal killings.
  8. Persecution – death lists are drawn up (victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity).
  9. Extermination – mass killings begin, violent acts are committed with intent to destroy the separated groups.
  10. Denial –evidence is destroyed, witnesses are intimidated, crimes are denied (this stage lasts throughout and always follows genocide).


For the original document by Gregory Stanton, see 

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